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Exploring Provide and Inject in Vue 3

Published by Solomon Eseme's profile picture Solomon Eseme on  Tue, 30 May 2023 15:30:00 GMT


In Vue 3, the provide and inject pattern provides a way to share data and functionality between components without the need for direct prop passing or event emitting. This powerful feature allows for more flexible and efficient communication between components in a Vue application. In this article, we will delve into the details of using provide and inject in Vue 3, understand their purpose and usage, and explore examples to demonstrate their effectiveness.

Everyone knows about the dreaded props drilling problems in Vue. A scenario where you have to pass props from the parent to the 3rd or infinity child component.

A screenshot showing prop drilling in Vue

Looking at the diagram above shows a clear example of the problem that Provide and Inject are trying to solve.

A prop is passed from the root component down to as many components as before it gets to the component that really wants to make use of the prop.

Sometimes, these prop-carrier components (Footer) do not really need those props.

<ParentComponent grand-kid-name="Kap">

<FirstChild :grand-kid-name="grand-kid-name">

<GrandKid :grand-kid-name="grand-kid-name">
My name is:
{ { grand-kid-name } }


<SecondChild> </SecondChild>


In the example above, the ParentComponent suggests a name for his grandkid (GrandKid Component) and the name has to pass from the parent to his child. The FirstChild component does not have anything to do with the name rather than pass it to the GrandKid component.

This problem is called Prop drilling and can extend to an infinity component down the line. This is exactly what Provide and Inject are trying to solve in Vue 3.

Understanding Provide and Inject in Vue 3

The provide and inject pattern in Vue 3 enables the creation of a parent-child relationship between components, where the parent component provides data or services that the child components can inject and use.

This pattern allows for the propagation of properties down the component tree without the need to explicitly pass them through props.

A screenshot showing provide and inject in Vue

The diagram above shows that instead of passing the data as props to the component descendant, we can simply use provide and inject to pass the data without prop drilling.

Let's explore the concepts of provide and inject in more detail.


The provide is used to provide data to the component’s descendants. It's a simple function that takes in a key and value as shown in the code snippet below:

// Using <script setup>
<script setup>
import { provide } from 'vue'

provide('grand-kid-name', 'Kap')

// If not using <script setup>, do this

import { provide } from 'vue'

export default {
setup() {
provide('grand-kid-name', 'Kap')

In the code snippet above, we demonstrate how to use the provide keyword to provide data when using <script setup> and when not.

Furthermore, the provide method takes in grand-kid-name as the key and Kap as the value to be retrieved by the child component.

App-Level Provide

Additionally, provide is not only available on the component level, but it can also be available on the application level meaning that you can provide some data that will be available throughout your component more like global data.

This code snippet shows how to create global data:

import { createApp } from "vue";

const app = createApp({});

app.provide("message", "hello!");

The code snippet is added inside the main.js file where Vue.js is initialized. It calls the app.provide() method to provide data to all components throughout the application.


The Inject is used to receive or retrieve the data from the ancestor component. It's also a simple function that takes in a key and returns the value that was provided as shown in the code snippet below:

// Using <script setup>
<script setup>
import {inject} from 'vue' const name = inject('grand-kid-name')

// If not using <script setup>, do this

import { inject } from "vue";

export default {
setup() {
const name = inject("grand-kid-name");
return { name };

As simple as calling the inject function and passing the key that was provided, we can retrieve the value from any component without prop drilling.

**Injection Default Values**

However, sometimes, we might want to pass a default value in case there was nothing provided by our ancestor component. We can achieve this by following the code snippet below:

const value = inject("grand-kid-name", "default value");

Most interestingly, we can set a default value by making an API call or using different business logic. To achieve this, we need to pass a function to the inject function as the default value as shown below:

const value = inject("key", () => {
// Some Expensive API calls or Business logic here

Providing Data or Services

To provide data or services from a parent component, we use the provide option in the parent component's configuration. The provide option accepts an object with properties that represent the data or services to be provided. Let's consider an example where a ThemeProvider component provides a theme object to its child components:

<!-- ThemeProvider.vue -->

export default {
provide() {
return {
theme: 'dark',

In this example, the ThemeProvider component provides the theme property with a value of 'dark' to its child components.

Injecting Data or Services

To access the provided data or services in a child component, we use the inject option. The inject option accepts an array or an object of property names that represent the data or services to be injected. The injected properties will be available in the component's instance. Let's see how a ChildComponent can inject and use the theme property provided by the ThemeProvider:

<!-- ChildComponent.vue -->
<p>Theme: </p>

export default {
inject: ['theme'],

In this example, the ChildComponent injects the theme property and can access its value within the component's template.

Working with Reactivity

It is common for you to want to work with the provide data that are reactive. Vue made the process very simple. The code snippet below shows how to pass reactive data to the provide function.

// Using <script setup>
<script setup>
import {inject} from 'vue' const firstname = ref('Solomon')
provide('firstname', {firstname})

Additionally, you might want to update the firstname from the child component where it is injected. To achieve this, look at the code snippet below where we pass an updateFirstName function to the Provide object and use it in the child component where it is injected to update the firstname reactive property.

<!-- inside provider component -->
<script setup>
import { provide, ref } from 'vue'

const firstName = ref('Solomon')

function updateFirstName() {
firstName.value = 'Eseme'

provide('firstname', {

Now, let's move inside the child component where it is injected and update the firstname from Solomon to Eseme.

<!-- in injector component -->

<script setup>
import { inject } from 'vue'

const { firstname, updateFirstName } = inject('firstname')

<button @click="updateFirstName">

Simple right? Now let’s look at some advanced use of Provide and Inject when building enterprise and complex Vue applications with many team members.

Advanced use of Provide and Inject in Vue 3

When working with teams in large and enterprise-ready Vue 3 applications, creating multiple provide and inject is unavoided and it can easily cause conflicts and potential collisions.

However, this can easily be avoided by creating and exporting a file to contain all the keys that are created throughout the application. The code snippet below shows how to use JavaScript symbols to create and manage a file for all Provide keys.

// Providekeys.js
export const name = Symbol();
export const age = Symbol();
export const title = Symbol();
export const firstname = Symbol();
export const lastname = Symbol();
export const desc = Symbol();
export const excerpt = Symbol();
export const userID = Symbol();
export const username = Symbol();

Now, inside your component add the following code snippet to make use of any key in the ProvideKeys.js file:

// in provider component
import { provide } from 'vue'
import { name } from './keys.js'

provide(name, {
/* data to provide */

Lastly, add the following code snippet inside the component you want to inject the data:

// in injector component
import { inject } from "vue";
import { name } from "./keys.js";

const injectedName = inject(name);

Learning and Using Provide and Inject in Vue 3

To learn more about provide and inject in Vue 3 and deepen your understanding, here are some recommended resources:

These resources provide detailed explanations, examples, and best practices for using provide and inject in Vue 3. By studying them, you will gain a comprehensive understanding of how to leverage provide, and inject effectively in your Vue applications.

Best Practices for Using Provide and Inject

When using provide and inject in your Vue 3 applications, it's important to keep the following best practices in mind:

  1. Avoid deeply nested injection chains: It's generally recommended to limit the usage of deeply nested provide and inject chains as it can make the code more difficult to understand and maintain. Instead, consider using Vuex or other state management solutions for complex data-sharing scenarios.
  2. Use default values or fallbacks: When using the inject option, it's a good practice to provide default values or fallbacks in case the injected property is not available. This ensures that the component can gracefully handle the absence of the injected property.
  3. Be mindful of reactivity: Keep in mind that the injected properties are not automatically reactive. If you need reactivity, consider using reactive data structures like ref or reactive in conjunction with provide and inject.


The provide and inject pattern in Vue 3 provides a powerful mechanism for sharing data and services between components. By using the provide option in the parent component and the inject option in the child component, you can establish a parent-child relationship that facilitates the flow of properties down the component tree.

In this article, we explored the concepts of provide and inject in Vue 3, understanding how they enable the sharing of data and services. We discussed how to provide and inject properties, and we highlighted important considerations and best practices for using provide and inject effectively.

Remember to refer to the official Vue 3 documentation and additional learning resources for further exploration and mastery of provide and inject in Vue 3.


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